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  • 칠곡출장안마╳24시출장샵✯칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡김해 안마방】ク「칠곡신천 모텔」↬칠곡광주 마사지☁칠곡울산 안마방 추천☼칠곡태국 출장 마사지☀칠곡안마방 오픈시간⇀칠곡피로회복 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    카지노사이트
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    칠곡출장안마﹃예약»칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡안마방 조루】┗「칠곡안동 마사지」➽칠곡전립선 마사지 영상☪칠곡니시미야 코노미 마사지☆칠곡광혜원 마사지φ칠곡tumblr 모텔✑칠곡경동맥 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 익산마사지 교육 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    칠곡출장안마♦24시출장샵♮칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡안마방 창업】♤「칠곡상남동 안마방」♖칠곡압구정 마사지✡칠곡박시연 마사지♞칠곡범일동 마사지웃칠곡경추성 두통 마사지┆칠곡안마방 단속시간

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    칠곡출장안마☪예약↚칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡성인 안마방】╇「칠곡동남아 안마방」┄칠곡마사지 관리사♗칠곡안마방 video☟칠곡일본 마사지 tumblr➽칠곡초대남 마사지↷칠곡정액 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    칠곡출장안마┟예약금없는출장샵囍칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡일베 모텔】❖「칠곡역곡 마사지」◙칠곡두피 마사지┠칠곡연수구 안마방✃칠곡구미 마사지▣칠곡마사지 물ヨ칠곡두통 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 울진안구 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    칠곡출장안마┾예약»칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡안마방 에이스】┷「칠곡판상근 마사지」⇥칠곡일본 오일 마사지♚칠곡마산 안마방⊿칠곡싱가포르 마사지♚칠곡제주 연동 마사지♢칠곡안마방 벌금

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    칠곡출장안마칠곡이기광 안마방

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    칠곡출장안마☏예약▒칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡라페스타 안마방】◘「칠곡호구포 마사지」└칠곡국 안마방 초이스㍿칠곡안마방 의자ツ칠곡비염 마사지┄칠곡이동국 안마방☀칠곡호텔식 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 전주아비게일 마사지 토렌트 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    울산출장샵
    구미안마방 출근부 카지노사이트 금산가산디지털단지역 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    칠곡출장안마ⓥ예약❤칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡두통 완화 마사지】ラ「칠곡광주 모텔 추천」↺칠곡인계동 마사지→칠곡마산 모텔 추천U칠곡국 안마방☀칠곡안마방 전화➼칠곡양산 젤리 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 영광fc2 남친 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    칠곡출장안마◇출장부르는법⇟칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡전립선 마사지 영상】↶「칠곡홍대 마사지」♫칠곡타이 마사지 퇴폐╳칠곡동두천 마사지☯칠곡안마방 무료야동⇀칠곡봉담 마사지↺칠곡강릉 조건녀

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 수원출장안마 .

    용인마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ
    경상남도블라디보스톡 마사지 진주출장샵 수원경찰 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    칠곡출장안마●24시출장샵╟칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡일본 보빨】«「칠곡범일동 안마방」➻칠곡삼산동 마사지♬칠곡천안 안마방 후기┹칠곡가락시장 마사지┆칠곡안마방 움짤§칠곡유재석 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 제주출장샵 .

    칠곡출장안마─출장부르는법⇪칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡마사지 ssul】✉「칠곡여주 안마방」⇍칠곡삼산동 출장☀칠곡한국 마사지↑칠곡시흥 마사지⇞칠곡안산 안마방 추천◥칠곡대전 유성 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 칠곡목포 여관 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    칠곡출장안마♞예약⇀칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡요괴 마사지】➽「칠곡음부 마사지」♡칠곡경기 광주 마사지✖칠곡강원 랜드 근처 마사지▽칠곡방이동 안마방☜칠곡동네 마사지♫칠곡안마방 용어

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    칠곡출장안마♨예약금없는출장샵▶칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡마사지 흥분】✌「칠곡평택역 안마방」╄칠곡안마방 오르가즘♧칠곡한국여자 마사지➻칠곡아주대 안마방╢칠곡괌 마사지 팔러╙칠곡아로마 마사지 부작용

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 부평일본 오일 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 창원출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 증평안마방 오르가즘 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 전주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    칠곡출장안마¤예약금없는출장샵▨칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡산본 안마방】┷「칠곡안마방 팁」ⓛ칠곡건강 마사지╦칠곡전주 안마방◊칠곡누드 마사지┯칠곡동대구역 근처 모텔♠칠곡에가오 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 바카라사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 서울출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    칠곡출장안마✪예약금없는출장샵☻칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡대딸방】▒「칠곡안마방 하늘이」┴칠곡안산 마사지 추천▄칠곡안마방 한국야동↼칠곡콜걸강추×칠곡안양 마사지▪칠곡마사지 torrent

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    예천안마방 avi
    카지노사이트 산청마포구청 마사지 포항출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    칠곡출장안마☣예약금없는출장샵↔칠곡운서역 안마방【칠곡세r시 마사지】♥「칠곡브베 안마방」☆칠곡경기 광주 마사지┨칠곡안양1번가 마사지♡칠곡강남 왁싱샵ψ칠곡마사지 남친➷칠곡안마방 얼굴

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.칠곡출장안마칠곡안마방 가는법☪칠곡울산 마사지▷「칠곡정선 마사지」칠곡건전한 마사지ヒ칠곡안면 비대칭 마사지◥칠곡마사지 오일╤칠곡일본식 마사지⇗카지노사이트출장부르는법칠곡전주 타이 마사지◐칠곡대학로 마사지▣‹칠곡안마방 사정›칠곡마사지 흥분☛칠곡출장미인아가씨↿칠곡출장외국인ヘ칠곡상동 안마방☰칠곡출장안마울진오피스 걸칠곡서혜부 마사지 효능ღ칠곡만남 카톡✏【칠곡안마방 방구】칠곡마사지 맛사지➷칠곡삼계 안마방⇚칠곡홍진호 안마방♞칠곡안마방 가는법コ칠곡안마사 자격증➻칠곡압구정 마사지☂<칠곡봉담 마사지>칠곡문산 마사지ⓛ칠곡광주 스타 안마방⇔칠곡호치민 안마방⇞칠곡장안동 안마방┙칠곡출장맛사지╓칠곡맛사지╅【칠곡안마방 몰카】칠곡거제 안마방 추천❧칠곡오피걸✍칠곡일본마사지◈칠곡수원역 마사지↮칠곡동대문 안마방♨칠곡강남 전립선 마사지╋〔칠곡귀 마사지〕칠곡광양 마사지┌칠곡지행 안마방オ칠곡대구 출장 마사지►칠곡안마방 성병↯출장부르는법의성여성전용 마사지 구인예약금없는출장샵칠곡안마방 싸면 끝┓칠곡부천 마사지 추천☎〈칠곡안마방 ssul〉칠곡안마방 쓰리섬↶칠곡부산 출장 서비스☎칠곡출장 만남 카톡◈칠곡마사지 앱ア칠곡출장안마칠곡출장안마포항출장안마칠곡마사지 강간칠곡사당 안마방칠곡안마방 나무위키칠곡fc 마사지칠곡출장안마칠곡테크노폴리스 마사지▌칠곡자카르타 마사지☊(칠곡가슴 커지는 마사지)칠곡실제 일본 안마방☱칠곡마사지 간판 구분◑칠곡서울대입구 마사지↿칠곡창원 마사지ξ청주양재 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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