24시출장샵
  • 김포모텔 마사지
  • 대구출장안마
  • 광주출장샵
  • 제천천안 오피스
  • 김포출장맛사지△24시출장샵┱김포콜걸후기〈김포천안 퇴폐〉➹「김포안마방 실사」•김포제주 마사지⇩김포안마방 튜브┊김포방콕 마사지☀김포타이마사지❥김포수원 출장

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    gvya.xyz
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    김포출장맛사지☍출장부르는법╘김포콜걸후기〈김포마사지 물〉♝「김포부산 서면 모텔」↙김포대전복합터미널 마사지╩김포조건 카톡χ김포대구 타이 마사지↺김포다방 모텔♂김포음부 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 함양fc2 남친 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    김포출장맛사지オ출장부르는법✏김포콜걸후기〈김포오리역 안마방〉↸「김포다방 콜」▶김포안마방 미러 김포안마방 싸면 끝☋김포울산 안마방 추천メ김포오피걸┺김포광양 마사지

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    김포출장맛사지➻예약▨김포콜걸후기〈김포마사지 효과〉↨「김포마스카 안마방」♦김포오사카 안마방⇠김포안마방 의자❧김포콜걸추천〓김포당진 안마방┪김포마사지황형

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 평택출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    김포출장맛사지⇩예약◎김포콜걸후기〈김포해피 출장〉▼「김포유흥 마사지」♟김포감성마사지 뜻╆김포감성마사지란▥김포송우리 안마방➚김포화정 마사지↜김포부산 모텔

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 마산일본식 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    김포출장맛사지❤예약⇣김포콜걸후기〈김포출장안마야한곳〉┴「김포국 안마방」▀김포아줌마 안마방↹김포선입금 출장╩김포안마방 몰카 토렌트↕김포강남구청 안마방ロ김포압구정 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 대전출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    김포출장맛사지김포주안 마사지

  • 김해젖몸살 마사지
  • 김포안산 대딸방
  • 김포출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    김포출장맛사지☈예약금없는출장샵☺김포콜걸후기〈김포태국마사지 가격〉⇎「김포장요근 마사지」⚘김포안마방 몰카 torrentφ김포라페 안마방0김포상봉 마사지〓김포수유리 안마방┨김포마사지 질싸

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 군산평택역 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    undersite.xyz
    순천천안 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ 진주출장샵 음성선입금 출장
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    김포출장맛사지↕예약╅김포콜걸후기〈김포오창 안마방〉☏「김포마사지 구분」]김포속초 안마방♕김포평택 여관♪김포배 마사지ν김포사이판 마사지↣김포안마방 오픈시간

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 광주콧대 높이는 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    김포출장맛사지★24시출장샵↔김포콜걸후기〈김포안마방 퇴폐〉☁「김포커플 마사지 후기」┳김포스포츠마사지 자격증⇚김포av 마사지 추천☌김포아로마 마사지 효능❃김포부평 마사지 샵◈김포기흥구청 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    춘천부산 여관 가격
    강원도서울 출장 마사지 창원출장안마 공주구의동 안마방
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    김포출장맛사지ソ24시출장샵★김포콜걸후기〈김포안마방 여자〉⊙「김포유성 안마방 후기」◇김포아줌마 마사지-김포창원 출장 숙소↔김포대전 모텔 가격☈김포와이프 마사지⇚김포다낭 마사지 추천

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 수원출장안마 .

    김포출장맛사지☁예약금없는출장샵☂김포콜걸후기〈김포제주 안마방〉▶「김포마사지 모음」┭김포아줌마 안마방▒김포타이 아로마 마사지チ김포출장 만남 보증금┄김포일본 안마방 야동☢김포생리통 완화 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 아산대구 모텔 아가씨 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    김포출장맛사지♫출장부르는법☠김포콜걸후기〈김포서혜부 마사지〉↟「김포일산 모텔 가격」╔김포안마방 알바 구하는법↱김포강동구 마사지☟김포유흥인 토렌트♡김포구미 봉곡동 마사지β김포다낭 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    김포출장맛사지カ24시출장샵☐김포콜걸후기〈김포일산 모텔 추천〉☠「김포송원장 마사지」コ김포사우나 마사지↿김포항문 마사지┺김포여관 미시↼김포셀룰라이트 마사지❤김포스포츠 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 함양동암역 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 원주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 천안출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 양주간석오거리 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 대전출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    김포출장맛사지⊙24시출장샵☼김포콜걸후기〈김포안마방 나이대〉➴「김포광명 안마방」♐김포암사동 마사지☃김포콜걸출장안마↺김포동네 안마방⇚김포동두천 마사지★김포태국 출장 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, undersite.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 전주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    김포출장맛사지⇩24시출장샵⇪김포콜걸후기〈김포남양주시 안마방〉☝「김포송탄 안마방」◐김포삼산동 안마방☛김포판상근 마사지☣김포포승읍 안마방⊿김포하노이 vip 마사지♀김포금정 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    경산한국인 마사지
    천안출장샵 예천출장최강미녀 진주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    김포출장맛사지✁출장부르는법┵김포콜걸후기〈김포림프선 마사지〉◙「김포신림 아로마 마사지」ღ김포아비게일 마사지χ김포얼굴 경락 마사지 방법⇘김포국노 토렌트╎김포코코넛오일 마사지↕김포별내 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.김포출장맛사지김포광양 마사지◣김포강서구청 안마방↹「김포안마방 몰 카」김포세r시 마사지⇥김포출장 타이마사지☁김포전립선 마사지↠김포옆광대 마사지▨천안출장샵예약금없는출장샵김포안산 조건 만남☏김포혼자 안마방ウ『김포타이마사지』김포타이마사지 종류ネ김포부평 마사지 샵❥김포당진 마사지▌김포안마방 엉덩이ノ김포출장맛사지합천구의동 안마방김포마사지 기획물♪김포춘천 마사지▣〔김포진접 안마방〕김포안마방 위험⚘김포안마방 찾는법↺김포코 마사지↾김포순천 마사지▀김포역삼역 안마방♫김포당진 안마방↽〈김포마사지 앱〉김포전주 안마방 가격☢김포아쿠아 마사지 젤╍김포동탄 마사지 후기△김포안마방 후장◄김포타이 마사지 꿀팁☠김포산호동 마사지π〖김포야동 마사지〗김포마사지 썰✄김포출장서비스✲김포의정부 대딸방☞김포황제 마사지✌김포안마방 초이스.mp4▦김포분당 마사지◦(김포안마방 단속 확률)김포발바닥 마사지↕김포용현동 마사지▫김포여관 녀↮김포미금역 마사지♀24시출장샵곡성음경 마사지예약금없는출장샵김포토요 경마✿김포안마방 비아그라─(김포일본 마사지 야동)김포사가정 마사지◕김포다크서클 없애는 마사지☻김포송파 마사지↸김포안마방 복장╪김포출장맛사지김포출장맛사지창원출장안마김포순천 안마방김포최음 마사지김포강서구 안마방김포영일대 마사지김포출장맛사지김포서산 안마방▫김포태국마사지 후기U﹝김포러시아 밤문화﹞김포아다 안마방◙김포대전 황궁 마사지╭김포방이동 여관⇘김포시흥 안마방❀구례야동 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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