거제출장맛사지➥출장부르는법♨거제조건 만남 서울〖거제안마방〗┨〔거제사각턱 마사지〕↞거제fc2 안마방─거제건강 마사지☐거제전립선 마사지 후기♠거제궐동 안마방ミ거제하복대 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

거제출장맛사지☈예약➚거제조건 만남 서울〖거제마사지 구인〗⇀〔거제서현역 안마방〕➵거제다낭 붐붐 마사지❥거제테니스공 마사지☂거제아쿠아 마사지 젤⇁거제김해 출장 마사지┾거제필승 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 함평다리 마사지 기계 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

거제출장맛사지☃출장부르는법↱거제조건 만남 서울〖거제신설동 안마방〗↢〔거제신림 안마방〕⊙거제마산 모텔 추천★거제운정 안마방┭거제모텔 출장◑거제모텔 출장마사지➚거제안마방 핸드폰

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

거제출장맛사지⇛24시출장샵┛거제조건 만남 서울〖거제국노〗☻〔거제인덕원 마사지〕╬거제20대 안마방✓거제영등포 마사지ネ거제장요근 마사지▧ 거제구글 재펜┛거제마사지 볼

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 원주출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

거제출장맛사지✁24시출장샵✍거제조건 만남 서울〖거제남양주 안마방〗ヨ〔거제광안리 안마방〕☠거제쿤타이 마사지✔거제여관 비용⇂거제신촌 마사지オ거제광주 여관╝거제단발 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 순천목 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

거제출장맛사지↶24시출장샵♡거제조건 만남 서울〖거제겨드랑이 마사지〗[〔거제송도 안마방〕⇖거제성기 마사지⇢거제안마방 유출┰거제홍콩 안마방✕거제전립선 마사지 후기★거제서울 안마방 위치

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 천안출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

거제출장맛사지거제텔레그램 야동

  • 시흥홍성 안마방
  • 거제군포 안마방
  • 거제출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    거제출장맛사지♩예약★거제조건 만남 서울〖거제미시 마사지〗マ〔거제흑인 마사지〕⇛거제익산 모텔 가격┗거제부산역 모텔 가격☄거제안마방 가는 법▩거제마사지 노출☑거제부산 서면 모텔

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 동인천엉덩이 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 군산출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장샵
    군산조루 안마방 목포출장샵 화순상남동 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 군산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    거제출장맛사지❣24시출장샵↞거제조건 만남 서울〖거제pornhub 안마방〗⇖〔거제김연아 안마방〕✁거제안마방 풋잡☏거제안마방 카운터♂거제턱관절 마사지↹거제팔 마사지♥거제자카르타 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 진안남편 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    거제출장맛사지❤출장부르는법⇜거제조건 만남 서울〖거제양재 안마방〗↬〔거제도쿄 마사지〕﹄거제동대문구 안마방✚거제연산동 안마방⇛거제용산 안마방↦거제범일동 마사지◣거제av 에이미

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 군산출장안마 .

    고성서울 출장샵
    강진애인대행 okbari.xyz 속초출장 타이마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    거제출장맛사지☼24시출장샵웃거제조건 만남 서울〖거제출장최강미녀〗✤〔거제안마방 마무리〕→거제갓비비 마사지█거제마사지〓거제텀블러 여관«거제나고야 여성 전용 마사지⇔거제안마방 카드

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 광주출장안마 .

    거제출장맛사지┋예약┲거제조건 만남 서울〖거제마사지 샤워기〗↼〔거제주안 모텔 추천〕┳거제베트남 하노이 마사지⇦거제치앙마이 마사지﹌거제모텔➚거제fc2 마사지☪거제세종시 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 함양목 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    거제출장맛사지⇞24시출장샵ε거제조건 만남 서울〖거제부산 마사지〗☻〔거제안면 비대칭 마사지〕﹃거제논현동 안마방↲거제동대구 마사지●거제엑소 안마방⇣거제마사지 배우기♦거제울산 명촌 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    거제출장맛사지↿예약│거제조건 만남 서울〖거제안마방 정액〗♖〔거제포항 타이 마사지〕✿거제원룸 출장♣거제남양주 안마방λ거제안마방 야동↨거제미시출장안마η거제안마방 입문

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 진도경찰 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. adko.xyz .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 보령안마방 풋잡 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    거제출장맛사지▥출장부르는법☪거제조건 만남 서울〖거제나주 안마방〗↖〔거제창원 마사지〕┫거제안마방◐거제하남 마사지♕거제답십리 마사지◆거제역곡 마사지»거제안마방 vs 오피

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    거제출장맛사지☏예약금없는출장샵⇣거제조건 만남 서울〖거제초대남 마사지〗▣〔거제서울 조건 만남〕┯거제jav 마사지〓거제텀블러 여관┨거제주안 안마방↨거제자카르타 마사지エ거제일산 안마방 가격

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양주안마방 내상
    대구출장안마 무안호텔 마사지 군산출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    거제출장맛사지♀예약υ거제조건 만남 서울〖거제안마방 항문〗➼〔거제50m〕♥거제대구 출장마사지♠거제부산 모텔 추천◑거제한국여자 마사지フ거제송파구 안마방▄거제안마방 비아그라

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.거제출장맛사지거제허벅지 마사지▒거제어스파メ〔거제마사지 강간〕거제마사지 영상☈거제사타구니 마사지▼거제안마방 똥까시◑거제전주 모텔 가격☋카지노사이트예약금없는출장샵거제일본 마사지 품번☆거제안마방 동영상☼[거제aktkwl]거제출장녀╥거제요방형근 마사지♨거제상봉 마사지セ거제안마방 의자☎거제출장맛사지제주베트남 하노이 마사지거제저주파 마사지ア거제마사지 레전드↤〖거제양평 안마방〗거제냉정 안마방λ거제콜걸 후기◦거제삼산동 마사지┖거제냉정 안마방▦거제광명사거리 안마방↗거제이영학 안마방τ〔거제기흥구청 마사지〕거제안마방 오피╬ 거제고양이 안마방┲거제아주대 안마방↼거제커플 마사지ヌ거제남자 마사지┣거제일본야동 마사지╝<거제송도 안마방>거제베트남 안마방┦거제다낭 호텔 마사지§거제오창 마사지╉거제안마방 ㅅㅅ❦거제안마방 몰카 tumblr❈거제국산 안마방 몰카◎〈거제국 안마방 초이스〉거제pj 안마방◆거제북창동 후기➽거제안마방 터치♕거제lovegom☑출장부르는법함평안마방 알바출장부르는법거제호치민 1군 마사지♈거제정관 마사지⇗【거제종로 안마방】거제도쿄 안마방┓거제마사지 사정⇡거제pornhub 안마방♨거제용산 마사지¤거제출장맛사지거제출장맛사지포항출장안마거제커플 마사지 방법거제타이마사지 섹스거제pj 안마방거제고양이 마사지거제출장맛사지거제스즈 하라 에미리 마사지┵거제성감대 마사지↖﹛거제성신여대 마사지﹜거제송원장 마사지☭거제강릉 모텔 추천◥거제다낭 호텔 마사지⇠거제이종찬 마사지↔연천논산 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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